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   As the Sabbath Approaches: Erev Shabbos

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Prayer for Welcoming the Sabbath: Kabbalas Shabbos

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Shema before Retiring on Friday Night

Morning Service for Shabbos: Shacharis

The Torah Reading on Shabbos and Festivals

List of Haftorah Readings where Customs Vary

The Additional Service: Mussaf for Shabbos

The Afternoon Service: Minchah for Shabbos

The Close of Shabbos and Havdalah

Rosh Chodesh

Months and Holidays



Mourning: Semachos


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Sefer HaMinhagim
The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs

Prayer for Welcoming the Sabbath: Kabbalas Shabbos
Translated by Uri Kaploun

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Cf. Siddur, p. 128ff.

It is not our custom that a congregant who is to observe a yahrzeit on one of the forthcoming weekdays should lead the services on the preceding Shabbos.[201]

The following passages precede Maariv: lechu neranena, shiru laHashem, Hashem melech, mizmor shiru laHashem, Hashem melech, mizmor leDavid, ana b'choach lecha dodi, mizmor shir leyom haShabbos, Hashem molach, kegavna, roza d'Shabbos, chatzi kaddis.[202]

When a Yom-Tov or Chol HaMoed falls on Shabbos one does not read lechu neranena [nor the following four Psalms], but begins instead with mizmor leDavid (p. 131),[203] and continues with ana bechochah, and all the stanzas of lecha dodi.

This also applies to every Yom-Tov or Rosh HaShanah that ends on Friday evening.[204]

At Kabbalas Shabbos, the paragraph beginning ana bechoach (p. 131) is said in an undertone.[205]

While saying this paragraph, one should look at - or envisage - the Sheimos (Divine Names) formed by the acronyms of its words, but one should not pronounce them.[206]

When turning around to face west[207] while reading the paragraph beginning boi beshalom (p. 132), one begins the circuit by turning to one's left,[208] and completes it after having said bo'i chalah the second time.

When Friday evening coincides with Yom-Tov [or Chol HaMoed], one substitutes besimchah in this paragraph for berinah.[209]

When Friday evening coincides with Rosh HaShanah or Yom Kippur, one says berinah uv'tzahalah [as usual].[210]

It is our custom to bow to the right while saying bo'i chalah the first time, to the left while saying it the second time, and forward, having now returned to face east, while saying it the third time.[211]

The third time, bo'I chalah is said in an undertone, and it is our custom to read the next two words likewise.[212]

A congregant who observed yahrzeit on Friday, [even though the yahrzeit proper would now appear to have ended,] recites the Mourner's Kaddish after Psalm 92, which begins mizmor shir leyom haShabbos (p. 133).[213] If the yahrzeit falls on any day during the following week, it is not our custom that he should recite the Mourner's Kaddish at this point.

When reciting the passage that begins kegavna (p. 133) it appears certain that the Divine Names are to be pronounced fully.[214] After kegavna the Reader says the Half-Kaddish.[215]

In the paragraph beginning hashkiveinu (p. 138), the word ufros is spelled with a left-pointed sin and not a samech.[216]

On Shabbos and festivals, the words from ufros aleinu until the end of the paragraph are recited standing.[217]

The verses beginning v'shamru (p. 138) are not said on Shabbos; likewise, on Yom-Tov, Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur one does not interpose any verses [before Shemoneh Esreh].[218] On Rosh Chodesh one does not interrupt the service to remind the congregation to recite ya'aleh veyavo.

In the Shemoneh Esreh of Maariv and Mussaf (pp. 140 and 195), the paragraph beginning yismechu concludes with zeicher lema'aseh bereishis; at Shacharis (p. 180) it concludes with oso karasa.[219]

In the closing words of the paragraph beginning Elokeinu v'Elokei avoseinu retzei in the Shemoneh Esreh of Maariv (p. 140), one says bah; at Shacharis and Mussaf (pp. 180 and 196) one says bo; and at Minchah (p. 207) the text is shabasos...vam.[220]

When the paragraph beginning modim is recited in the Shemoneh Esreh of any of the prayer services of Shabbos, Yom-Tov, Rosh HaShanah or Yom Kippur, and likewise in the Mussaf service of Rosh Chodesh or Chol HaMoed, the word hamracheim is to be prefixed by the letter vav.[221]

A mourner does not lead the service for the Kaddish and Barchu that follow the Shemoneh Esreh of Friday evening.[222]

When a festival coincides with Shabbos,[223] the following passages (pp. 144ff.) are recited in an undertone: shalom aleichem,[224] eishes chayil, mizmor leDavid, da hi seudasah.[225]



  1. (Back to text) Sefer HaMaamarim 5709, p. 26.

  2. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur, cf. Shaar HaKollel 17:7. See also Seder Kabbalas Shabbos in Likkutei Maharich, and the sources cited there.

  3. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur. For the various customs in this matter concerning a Shabbos that coincides with Yom-Tov, see Mateh Ephraim 619:13 and 625:41, and Seder Kabbalas Shabbos in Likkutei Maharich.

  4. (Back to text) This follows the ruling in HaYom Yom, p. 92, as opposed to that in Shaar HaKollel 17, end of para. 6. See also Ketzos HaShulchan III, 77:13.

  5. (Back to text) HaYom Yom, p. 58.

  6. (Back to text) Ibid., p. 39.

  7. (Back to text) Pri Megadim I:1, 262; Shaar HaKollel 17:7, citing Shaar HaKavanos.

  8. (Back to text) Siddur Yaavetz; see also Shaar HaKollel, loc. cit.

  9. (Back to text) Glosses of the Rebbe Rashab on Siddur Torah Or. The above formula appears thus in Siddur HaAriZal edited by R. Shabsai of Rashkov, and is implied too by the wording of Mishnas Chassidim quoted in the above-mentioned Glosses: "...instead of saying gam berinah."

  10. (Back to text) Machzor HaShalem, p. 436, and the Note there by the Rebbe Shlita: "...For these days were not given for rejoicing. (See the Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch 582:10;...Mateh Ephraim 582:2.)"

  11. (Back to text) This was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Rayatz.

  12. (Back to text) Machzor HaShalem, p. 436, and see the Note there by the Rebbe Shlita.

  13. (Back to text) Sefer HaMaamarim 5708, p. 147. "It will be noted that according to the Magen Avraham and the Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (end of sec. 261), work is permitted even after this Psalm has been recited." (Note by the Rebbe Shlita.)

    It is self-understood that one who has yahrzeit on the Shabbos recites Kaddish at this point.

  14. (Back to text) Note by the Rebbe Shlita: "There is an obvious difference between

    1. reading the Divine Names that appear in a subject being studied, and

    2. pronouncing them while practicing the wording of the blessings - which the Alter Rebbe disallowed in his Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 215:2). See also Birkei Yosef, ad. loc. At any rate, this is not the forum for a full treatment of the subject."

  15. (Back to text) Kaddish is recited at this stage because the passage beginning kegavna is an aggadic exposition of certain verses. (The Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch, end of sec. 54.)

  16. (Back to text) Shaar HaKollel 17:21 quotes a ms. note of the Rebbe Maharash: "I also saw that in his own holy handwriting he had emended it to a shin." Commenting on this note in his Glosses to the Siddur, the Rebbe Rashab writes: "It appears to be clear that the reference is to the [Alter] Rebbe." See also Shaar HaKollel, loc. cit., at length.

  17. (Back to text) HaYom Yom, p. 58.

  18. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur. See p. 48 above, on the weekday Maariv, and see at length in Shaar HaKollel 17:24.

  19. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur. Mishnas Chassidim (Maseches Shacharis Shabbos 8:7) presents a Kabbalistic explanation as to why zeicher l'ma'aseh bereishis should not be said at Shacharis on Shabbos. (See at length in Shaar HaKollel 17:29.)

  20. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur, and likewise in Siddur HaAriZal. For a Kabbalistic interpretation see Shaar HaKollel 17:131.

  21. (Back to text) In any Amidah which does not include the 18 ("Shemoneh Esreh") blessings, one prefixes the letter vav to the word hamracheim. (Directive of the Previous Rebbe.)

  22. (Back to text) From the last testament of the Rebbe Rashab, reproduced in the Appendix to the second edition of Chanoch LaNaar. See also p. 181 below, in the section on the observance of a yahrzeit. It is recorded in Sefer HaMaamarim - Kuntreisim, Vol. II, p. 404a, that on Shabbos, the ninth of Kislev [i.e., the yahrzeit of the Mitteler Rebbe], in the year 5657 (1897), the Rebbe Rashab recited this Kaddish. This was perhaps the result of particular circumstances.

  23. (Back to text) Machzor HaShalem, p. 434.

  24. (Back to text) Each of its four stanzas is read three times.

  25. (Back to text) "The sentence that begins with these words [Siddur, p. 146] does not appear in the Siddur [of the AriZal] edited by R. Shabsai of Rashkov, nor in any of the Siddurim of Nussach Sephard, nor in others that I have seen, but it does appear in all the Siddurim of Nussach Chabad that I have seen. The repetition is problematic, for the very same words are again recited immediately afterwards as part of the passage beginning askinu. In the text for Seudah Shelishis [p. 210] they appear only once. Repetition is more in keeping with the distinctively lengthy nature of the text that introduces the second meal [p. 202]. There, moreover, they could be understood to appear as a continuation and explanation of the preceding verse, az tisaneig, as discussed in the Zohar, in the passage beginning b'yoma d'shabata, and expounded in the Siddur [im Dach, p. 398]." (Note of the Rebbe Shlita in Machzor HaShalem, p. 440.)

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