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On the Observance of Customs

Morning Conduct

   Conduct Immediately Upon Waking

The Morning Blessings



The Morning Service: Shacharis

Textual Variants


Pesukei DeZimrah

Shema and its Berachos

Shemoneh Esreh

The Repetition of Shemoneh Esreh and the Priestly Blessing

The Reading of the Torah: Kerias HaTorah

Raising the Sefer Torah: Hagbahah

The Conclusion of Shacharis

The Six Remembrances

The Tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam

The Chitas Study Cycles Instituted by the Rebbe Rayatz: Chumash, Tehillim, Tanya

Washing the Hands (Netilas Yadayim) before Meals; Grace After Meals (Birkas HaMazon) & Other Blessings

The Prayer for Travelers: Tefillas HaDerech

Circumcision: Bris Milah

The Afternoon Service: Minchah

The Evening Service: Maariv

Prayer Before Retiring at Night: Kerias Shema


Rosh Chodesh

Months and Holidays



Mourning: Semachos


Miscellaneous Topics

Founders of Chassidism & Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch


Sefer HaMinhagim
The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs

Morning Conduct
Shema and its Berachos
Translated by Uri Kaploun

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Cf. Siddur, p. 42ff.

The sheliach tzibbur should include himself in the congregation by responding baruch Hashem hamevorach l'olam vo'ed (p. 42) together with (and not after) them. One does not respond Amen to this sentence.[70]

When saying yotzeor or (ibid.) one touches the hand-tefillin, and the head-tefillin when saying u'vorei choshech.[71]

The first letter in the phrase l'melech E-l chai v'kayam (p. 44) should be vocalized with a kamatz.[72]

At the phrase beginning v'havi'einu l'shalom (p. 45), one first brings the two front tzitzis together; these are then joined by the remaining one on the left and the remaining one on the right. All four are then held together between the fourth and last fingers of the left hand.[73]

"Though the customary order for bringing together and holding the tzitzis for Kerias Shema has been described in print, some of the details are still unclear. I shall therefore record what I observed of the Rebbe Rashab on this subject.

"He would first take the two front tzitzis in his left hand, holding them next to each other between the thumb and the middle finger (over which all four tzitzis would soon be arranged). He would then bring the left-hand tzitzis from the back of the tallis and place it to the left of the two front ones, and likewise take the right-hand tzitzis from the back of the tallis and place it to the right of the three that were already held in position. The tzitzis were thus held in the same order as they had been when they were freely suspended from the tallis, the two front ones then having been (as it were) enclosed by the two back ones.

"After this he would take the four tzitzis in the above order and draw them, from the palm outwards, between the last and fourth fingers. They then crossed the fourth and middle fingers, on the outside, and were again brought into the palm between the middle and index fingers. Finally, having crossed the inside of the index finger, they were held between that finger and the thumb throughout the Shema, including the stages when they were kissed.

"When it came to u'r'isem oso (p. 48) the [ends of the] two front tzitzis (which were now in the middle of the set of four) were taken up in the right hand, the order not being changed from the above."[74]

The sheliach tzibbur concludes the blessing habocheir b'amo Yisrael b'ahavah (p. 45) quietly.[75]

One kisses the tzitzis six times, at the following places (pp. 47-48): tzitzis, tzitzis, l'tzitzis, emes, kayemes, lo'ad.[76]

One passes the tzitzis over the eyes before kissing them.[77]

A worshiper who has not yet completed his reading of the Shema is nevertheless included in the sheliach tzibbur's proclamation of Hashem Elokeichem emes. (I.e., these three words which he now hears read aloud bring his own reading too to its required total number of words, since he too is now reading the Shema.)[78]

One who prays alone should repeat the words ani Hashem Elokeichem.[79]

The morning Shema may be read during the first quarter of the daylight hours. One must be especially careful in the summer, when daybreak is early, not to exceed this time limit.[80]

Throughout the year, the sheliach tzibbur recites the blessing goal yisrael (p. 50) at [no less than] his usual volume.[81]



  1. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur; his Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 192:2. (This applies whenever Barchu is said; see Badei HaShulchan on Ketzos HaShulchan 18:31.)

  2. (Back to text) Mentioned in several sources in Chassidus, following the writings of the AriZal. (See Siddur HaAriZal; Mishnas Chassidim, Tefillas HaBeriah.)

  3. (Back to text) From the Glosses of the Rebbe Rashab on the Siddur [reprinted in Siddur Torah Or, p. 486]. See also Shaar HaKollel 7:9, and Maamar Nussach HaTefillah (by the Rebbe of Munkacz), ch. 14.

  4. (Back to text) HaYom Yom, p. 64.

  5. (Back to text) Note by R. Eliyahu Simpson.

  6. (Back to text) Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim sec. 59:4 and sec. 61, and commentaries ad loc.; Kuntreis 55; Machzor HaShalem: Appendix to Likkutei Minhagim.

  7. (Back to text) HaYom Yom, loc. cit.

  8. (Back to text) Custom of the Rebbe Shlita; see also Kaf HaChayim 24:114.

  9. (Back to text) From a letter of the Rebbe Shlita [reprinted in his Igrois Koidesh, Vol. XIX, pp. 450]; see also Kaf HaChayim 61:16.

  10. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur; see at length in Shaar HaKollel 2:9.

  11. (Back to text) The Alter Rebbe's Siddur; see Tzemach Tzedek, glosses to Tractate Berachos (3:3).

  12. (Back to text) Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 66:7, and beginning of sec. 111 with commentaries ad loc.; Siddur im Dach, Hilchos Kerias Shema; Kuntreis 55; Machzor HaShalem: Appendix to Likkutei Minhagim.

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